Archive for communication

Most major business challenges require us to alter human behavior

At some point, most major business challenges require us to alter human behavior

by Mike Walker • May 16, 2016

Here’s how to put the science of behavior change to work for you

We spend much of our professional lives trying to convince people to do something different or new – even if we don’t think about it that way.   To cite a few examples, software companies have to convince prospects to change the way they’re currently getting things done.  Health care professionals want patients to exercise, eat better, and take medications as prescribed.  Manufacturing bosses need employees to wear safety gear.  Every retailer and brand wants to reduce the number of products that their customers return.  And so on.

Our clients find it enlightening to reframe business challenges as a human behavior change challenges.  Why?  It puts people (customers, colleagues, or communities) at the center of the problem—and, therefore, the solution.  It demands that we more closely observe them.   Since we understand that simply making our customers aware of something doesn’t necessarily lead to behavior change (see my last post), we are forced to question what customers need to know, what motivates them, and how they make (or avoid) the decisions that drive behavior.   Reframing a problem as a behavior change challenge encourages us to re-think the design of our processes, products, programs, and services.  In short, it delivers new insights.

Once you’re thinking about a business problem as a behavior change challenge, you can leverage the findings of social science and behavioral economics to influence individual decision making and drive people to action. Fortunately, you don’t need to review several decades’ worth of scientific research to glean the necessary insights. You don’t even need to read these engaging summaries.  We’ve done all of that for you.  Based on the scientific literature—and our 15 years of experience—the most successful behavior change efforts do these three things exceptionally well.

1) Provide unambiguous DIRECTION.  

We need to understand exactly what we want our customer to do—and we need to articulate it in a way they’ll understand.  Remember that you are not your customer: you’ve thought about your product or service far more than they ever will.  My advice?  Don’t think big-picture—instead, think in terms of highly-specific behaviors.  For example, simply reminding food handlers to wash their hands may not reduce disease transmission if people aren’t washing correctly.  (This poster really spells it out!)

Ask yourself: is your “call to action” crystal clear? Is it specific? Is it asking people to do too much? Can it be simplified?  Is it assuming people know things that they might not actually know? It also helps for people to know why they should do something new.  Does your customer understand the desired outcome and why it’s important?  Be sure to point people to the destination and explain why their effort will be worthwhile.

2) Provide adequate MOTIVATION.

Knowing what to do isn’t enough to cause change.  We must appeal to our customer’s emotions, and make them feel something compelling.  We need to help them find the feeling that moves them to action.

Ask yourself:  can you change your customer’s frame of reference so they think about and identify with the possibilities—rather than the limitations—associated with the desired behavior?   For example, adult boaters are more inclined to wear lifejackets when they’re reminded that their kids are watching.  (Now it’s about being a better parent!)

It also helps to suggest that people have already made some progress towards the new behavior.  (E.g., you’ve spent good money on lifejackets!)  And, if the change has them feeling overwhelmed or intimidated, break it down into smaller, more doable tasks.  (E.g., hang your lifejacket on the back of your boat seat, so you’re reminded to put it on whenever the boat is underway.)

3) Alter the CONTEXT.

Customer decisions do not take place in a vacuum: the environment influences behavior far more than most people realize.  “Choice architecture” refers to the deliberate design of environments in which people make choices—say, a school cafeteria—and to the reality that there’s no such thing as a neutral design. Whether the cafeteria puts apples or Fritos at the front of the line, the placement will affect which snack is more popular.

With this in mind, can you change something in the environment to tip the balance in favor of the desired behavior?  Can you make the behavior easier?  Would prompts, checklists, or triggers help?  In our experience, the most successful behavior change initiatives focus relentlessly on removing barriers to—and facilitating—desired behaviors.

These suggestions may lead you to take a second look at your product design or service offering, customer-facing or back-office business processes, incentives, and/or supporting technology.  That’s a good thing, but I’ll acknowledge it isn’t easy.  Remember, this is an iterative process.

Has thinking about a business challenge as a human behavior change challenge shed new light on your work?  I’d love to hear about it. You can reach me directly at



How do you make people care?

Man not caring.  Who Cares?

How do you make people care?


Can’t convince people to get behind your pet project? Behavioral science suggests you might be going about it the wrong way.


by Mike Walker • December 21, 2015

I received a call from a friend a few weeks ago, a green marketing expert, who relayed a brief story about a new client. A sustainability director at a large national law firm, the new client was thoroughly frustrated by her colleagues’ anemic participation in her office recycling program.

I’ve asked people to participate dozens of times and in dozens of ways. I’ve articulated the benefits, offered rewards, and recognized my (few) model participants. Nothing seems to work! I’ve concluded that they simply don’t care – and really, what can you do when people don’t care?

“So…how do you make people care?” my friend asked.

I hear this question almost daily, whether it’s about recycling, energy efficiency, global warming, water quality, flu shots, saving for retirement, a product, a brand, or the new Star Wars movie.  So it’s a darn good thing I have an answer.

The answer is, in a nutshell…

You can’t. At least, not very often, and not in the near-term. That’s the bad news.

Now for the good news: it doesn’t matter. In other words, whether or not people care is largely immaterial  if you’re in the business of behavior change. As it turns out, getting people to change their behavior is actually a good first step toward making them care.

This assertion will strike many of you as counter-intuitive, if not false. We’d all like to think that our beliefs drive our behavior.  In other words, if we care about something, we act on it, right?

Not necessarily.  In fact, the scientific literature makes a compelling case to the contrary: our beliefs tend to be shaped by reflecting on our own past behavior. In other words, our beliefs are a function of our prior actions, and not the other way around.

So what’s going on here? Faced with a discrepancy between our beliefs and our behavior, humans experience mental stress that psychologists call cognitive dissonance. It’s an uncomfortable psychological state that leads people to change their beliefs – rather than continue feeling, subconsciously, like a phony. We are completely unaware of this phenomenon when it’s happening to us.

If you want to make people care, first help them change their behavior in a way that’s consistent with caring. In one influential study, researchers concluded that the single most effective way to change negative suburban perceptions about riding public transportation did not involve educating them about the benefits of ridership. It was, instead, to provide a free bus or subway pass, thus making it easier for people to try out the behavior. It turns out that doing leads to believing.

When we think of behavior change as an exercise in making humans care, we approach people as if we are trying to win a contentious argument. We inundate them with information and logic, trying to educate, inform, coax, or compel. Faced with disappointing results, we might be tempted to double down, convinced the solution must involve more information, more messages, etc. With our focus misplaced, it’s easy to overlook pragmatic opportunities to facilitate the actual behavior we want. I’m reminded of a favorite quote: “Having lost sight of our objectives, we redoubled our efforts.”

So if you can’t make people care, what should you do to encourage behavior change?

First, be very specific about what behavior you want. And then focus like a laser on facilitating the desired behavior. How do you do that? Seek to understand why people cling to their old behaviors. Identify and then remove barriers to the new behaviors. Manipulate the context, situation, or environment in which decisions are made. Provide adequate motivation and sufficiently clear direction.

As you might imagine, there are an infinite number of ways to do these things; for a few more specific guidelines, see our website, or contact us.

How do you make people care?  Who cares!  Focus on behaviors, not attitudes.

The 10 Biggest Mistakes Behavior Change Programs Make

behavior change: 10 common mistakes to avoid

The 10 Biggest Mistakes Behavior Change Programs Make

by Mike Walker • August 5, 2015

At some point in our careers, we all find ourselves face-to-face with a behavior change challenge. For example, we might be tasked with convincing employees to use a new software application, or customers to try a re-designed product, or neighbors to embrace a new community initiative. Regardless, here are ten traps to avoid, based on our nearly 14 years of experience and a body of research by economists and scientists such as Richard Thaler and BJ Fogg.

1. Focusing on changing people’s minds instead of facilitating the desired behaviors.

One of the many counter-intuitive findings of social science research is that attitudes don’t necessarily drive people’s behavior. In fact, it’s usually the other way around: people’s values and attitudes tend to flow from their behaviors. Forget about changing minds. What matters is action, so focus your efforts on facilitating the desired action!

2. Assuming people will change behavior when presented with compelling facts.

If only! The field of behavioral economics has demonstrated that we humans are not always logical, rational, or driven by coherent internal motivations. (Example: I know the importance of getting roughly 30 minutes of vigorous exercise every day – yet here I sit!) A host of factors conspire to influence people’s actions, and facts are just one of them.

3. Believing that good communication is the most important factor in any behavior change program.

Communication always gets the blame when behavior fails to change – most of the time, unfairly. Why? Because communication is the principle focus of most change campaigns – after all, it’s what marketers and advertisers are best at doing. But good communication is just a prerequisite for behavior change. It’s necessary, but typically insufficient. (Although every challenge is unique, we’ve identified 3 factors that characterize successful behavior change solutions.)

4. Going first for big change instead of starting with small, easy successes.

James Collins and Jerry Porras famously encouraged companies to come up with “big, hairy, audacious goals” in their 1994 book, Built to Last. All well and good, but leaders need to break down big changes into bite-sized chunks for people. Start with baby steps: specific actions that people can sustain over time. Early successes lay a foundation for long-term successes.

5. Underestimating the power of environment to shape behavior.

Small changes to the context in which decisions are made can greatly influence human behavior. Redesign the environment so it’s conducive to the new behavior. Remember: when you present choices to people, there is no such thing as a neutral presentation!

6. Trying to avoid old behaviors instead of creating new ones.

It’s really hard to simply stop a negative habit, so replace it with a positive one instead. It’s far more effective than trying to go “cold turkey.”

7. Blaming failure on lack of motivation.

Willpower is a finite resource: sooner or later it will be depleted. Everyone’s motivation ebbs and flows; what people need more than willpower is easier behaviors. Make the desired behavior the “path of least resistance.”

8. Ignoring the importance of triggers.

No behavior happens without a trigger. We’re hungry? We eat. The light turns green? We step on the gas. Our smartphone chirps? We glance at the display. Established triggers cue automatic behaviors, so we must identify triggers and pair them with new behaviors. In some cases you can eliminate a trigger (e.g., turn off smartphone notifications), or find a preceding trigger and pair it with a new behavior that preempts the old.

9. Talking to people about abstract goals instead of concrete behaviors.

The problem with an abstract goal is that there is no specific call to action. For restaurant workers, “conserve water” is abstract. “Wait to run the dishwasher until it is completely full of dirty dishes” is concrete. It’s important to translate goals into simple, actionable steps.

10. Seeking to change forever, instead of for a defined period of time.

Imagine asking co-workers to recycle all of their waste paper from henceforth and in perpetuity. Now imagine asking them to recycle all of their waste paper just for this week. A fixed period works better than “forever” when it comes to building new habits. Because if it sounds doable, people might just give it a try.

Have you encountered other mistakes when it comes to behavior change initiatives? Let me know!